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In Praise of Poverty 

I. The Philosophy of Poverty 

II. The Poverty of Riches 

III. The Riches of Poverty 

Unless each man is prepared to give to the world a 
great deal more than he will ever get out of it, we shall never 
reach the millenium. 


In Praise of Poverty 

To the " New Poor," to the poor in spirit, who rejoice in 
voluntary Poverty, and to that other type of poor who are " always 
with you," this little volume is dedicated. 

While Sayings in Praise of Poverty are many, books con 
cerning it are few. 

Yet from time immemorial, Bards and Sages have praised 
Poverty, in Sayings, some of which are unsurpassed in sincerity 
and beauty. 

The Praise of Poverty, indeed, is universal. However deep 
the cleavage of thought between the East and the West may 
appear to be, upon this question they are undivided. 

Though the proverbs of the people the current speech of the 
market-place prove comparatively lacking in Praise of Poverty, 
the higher planes of philosophic thought, of every age, yield 
abundant tribute to its virtues. 

These collected Sayings, with a strange unity in their variety, 
seem to voice an age-long protest against the materialistic attitude 
of mind, the greed of wealth, and lust of possession, which have 
been primary causes of all wars in the past, and probably will 
be of all wars in the future, whether industrial or international. 

They are not addressed to any one section of the community. 
On the contrary, they appeal to all, for they proclaim alike to 
every man, the liberty and beauty of a life freed from thought 
of material gain and divested of extraneous luxury. 

The sole individuals to whom they will make no appeal 
are those to whom the word Poverty implies but unwilling penury ; 
for whether clad in robes of state, or beggar's rags, such are one, 
at heart, with Dives. 

The simplicity of life to which these Sayings refer, must not, 
however, be confused with the sordid privation which unfits the 
worker for his work. Nor can it be attained by any legislative 
measures. It flourishes solely in the free atmosphere of in 
dividual responsibility and self-control, such as that which Saint 
Francis of Assisi clearly indicates in his Rules, where he exhorts 
and admonishes his people, " not to despise or judge those whom 
they see dressed in soft and gay clothing, and who use delicate 
food and drink," but rather, he says, " let every one judge and 
despise himself." For, as he adds elsewhere, " anger and trouble 
hinder charity in themselves and others." 

We find, therefore, that Poverty in itself is not an end 
but only the means to many virtues. 

In this collection of Sayings, it is not intended to suggest 
that mundane claims can be ignored ; nor, again, that those who 

seek the Way of Poverty should tend to withdraw themselves 
from the ordinary activities of their fellows. 

We cannot attempt to overlook material facts, for we are 
forced to admit that all who are human are " hewers of wood 
and drawers of water," vicariously and by proxy, if they are not 

The greatest exponents of the joy of the dispossessed, Christ, 
the Buddha and Saint Francis, in their active teaching, rank 
amongst the world's most tireless workers ; but the lust of possession 
was not theirs. 

Not by forsaking " the world " are the poor in spirit most 
truly blessed, but rather by seeking its transformation, through 
the alchemy of self-sacrifice, into the vigorous, living servant 
of the spiritual. 

The enigmas of Poverty have attracted the attention of the 
thinkers of every age, as possessing an unusual significance for 

The more closely they are examined, the deeper seem their 
connexion with almost every human interest. 

If the implications involved in the practice of voluntary 
Poverty be followed to their logical conclusion, the word Poverty 
proves to be as pregnant with far-reaching results as that grain 
of mustard-seed to which the very Kingdom of Heaven was once 

This volume of Sayings is not intended to be an Anthology. 
It was written solely with the purpose of Unking together, into 
connected form, some fragments of a message, whose words, 
though old, have still lost nothing of their ancient fire. 

From time to time, through rising and through falling civiliza 
tions, the thought which it contains has been borne on, by successive 
voices throughout the Nations, like the burden of some mighty 

It has been given to us with poetry, with humour, with 
philosophy, with the passion of an appeal and the earnestness 
of a command. 

The peoples of the world to-day, however, are founding their 
hope of progress almost entirely upon a groundwork of material 
prosperity. They ignore the truth of an ancient Saying, " Nothing 
imperishable is won by perishable means." 

Yet even in the darkest days of spiritual vision in the world's 
history, there will remain ever the few, from every land and 
clime, who will hear and heed the call to the Way of Poverty. 

The Philosophy of Poverty 


OUR .... topic shall be Poverty, felt at all times and 
under all creeds as one adornment of a saintly life. 
Since the instinct of ownership is fundamental in man's 
nature, this is one more example of the ascetic paradox. 
Yet it appears no paradox at all, but perfectly reasonable, 
the moment one recollects how easily higher excitements 
hold lower cupidities in check .... 

Since Hindu fakirs, Buddhist monks, and Mohammedan 
dervishes unite with Jesuits and Franciscans in idealising 
Poverty as the loftiest individual state, it is worth while 
to examine into the spiritual grounds for such a seemingly 
unnatural opinion .... 

The opposition between the men who have and the 
men who are is immemorial. Though the gentleman, in 
the old-fashioned sense of the man who is well-born, has 
usually in point of fact been predaceous and revelled in 
lands and goods, yet he has never identified his essence 
with these possessions, but rather with the personal 
superiorities, the courage, generosity, and pride supposed 
to be his birthright. To certain huckstering kinds of 
consideration he thanked God he was forever inaccessible, 
and if in life's vicissitudes he should become destitute 
through their lack, he was glad to think that with his sheer 
valor he was all the freer to work out his salvation .... 
This ideal of the well-born man without possessions was 
embodied in knight-errantry and templardom ; and, 
hideously corrupted as it has always been, it still dominates 
sentimentally, if not practically, the military and aristo 
cratic view of life. We glorify the soldier as the man 
absolutely unincumbered. Owning nothing but his bare 
life, and willing to toss that up at any moment when the 
cause commands him, he is the representative of unhampered 
freedom in ideal directions. 

WILLIAM JAMES (1842-1910), 

4 Varieties of Religious Experience.' 


IT hath been observed by wise and considering men, 
that wealth hath seldom been the portion, and never 
the mark to discover good people ; but that Almighty God, 
who disposes all things wisely, hath of his abundant goodness 
denied it He only knows why to many, whose minds He 
hath enriched with the greater blessings of knowledge and 
virtue, as the fairer testimonies of his love to mankind. 

IZAAK WALTON (1593-1683), 

' Life of Dr. John Donne.' 

HP IS, I confess, the common fate of men of singular 
1 gifts of mind, to be destitute of those of fortune ; 
which doth not any way deject the spirit of wiser judgments 
who thoroughly understand the justice of this proceeding ; 
and, being enriched with higher donatives, cast a more 
careless eye on these vulgar parts of felicity. It is a most 
unjust ambition, to desire to engross the mercies of the 
Almighty, not to be content with the goods of mind, 
without possession of those of body or fortune : and it is 
an error, worse than heresy, to adore those complimental 
and circumstantial pieces of felicity, and undervalue those 
perfections and essential points of happiness, wherein we 
resemble our Maker. To wiser desires it is satisfaction 
enough to deserve, though not to enjoy, the favours of 
fortune. Let providence provide for fools : 'tis not 
partiality, but equity, in God, who deals with us but as 
our natural parents. Those that are able of body and 
mind he leaves to their deserts ; to those of weaker merits 
he imparts a larger portion ; and pieces out the defect 
of one by the excess of the other. Thus have we no just 
quarrel with nature for leaving us naked ; or to envy the 
horns, hoofs, skins, and furs of other creatures ; being 
provided with reason, that can supply them all. 

SIR THOMAS BROWNE (1605-1682), 

* Religio Medici.' 


AMONG us English-speaking peoples especially do the 
praises of poverty need once more to be boldly sung. 
We have grown literally afraid to be poor. We despise 
anyone who elects to be poor in order to simplify and save 
his inner life. If he does not join the general scramble and 
pant with the money-making street, we deem him spiritless 
and lacking in ambition. We have lost the power even 
of imagining what the ancient idealization of poverty could 
have meant : the liberation from material attachments, 
the unbribed soul, the manlier indifference, the paying 
our way by what we are or do and not by what we have, 
the right to fling away our life at any moment irresponsibly, 
the more athletic trim, in short, the moral fighting shape. 
When we of the so-called better classes are scared as men 
were never scared in history at material ugliness and 
hardship ; when we put off marriage until our house can 
be artistic, and quake at the thought of having a child 
without a bank-account and doomed to manual labour, 
it is time for thinking men to protest against so unmanly 
and irreligious a state of opinion .... 

One hears of the mechanical equivalent of heat. What 
we now need to discover in the social realm is the moral 
equivalent of war : something heroic that will speak to 
men as universally as war does, and yet will be as compatible 
with their spiritual selves as war has proved itself to be 
incompatible. I have often thought that in the old 
monkish poverty-worship, in spite of the pedantry which 
infested it, there might be something like that moral 
equivalent of war which we are seeking. May not volun 
tarily accepted poverty be " the strenuous life," without 
the need of crushing weaker peoples ? 

Poverty indeed is the strenuous life, without brass 
bands or uniforms or hysteric popular applause or lies or 
circumlocutions ; and when one sees the way in which 
wealth-getting enters as an ideal into the very bone and 
marrow of our generation, one wonders whether a revival 
of the belief that poverty is a worthy religious vocation 
may not be " the transformation of military courage," 
and the spiritual reform which our time stands most in 
need of. , 


There are thousands of conjunctures in which a wealth- 
bound man must be a slave, whilst a man for whom poverty 
has no terrors becomes a free-man. Think of the strength 
which personal indifference to poverty would give us if 
we were devoted to unpopular causes. We need no longer 
hold our tongues or fear to vote the revolutionary or 
reformatory ticket. Our stocks might fall, our hopes of 
promotion vanish, our salaries stop, our club doors close 
in our faces ; yet, while we lived, we would imperturbably 
bear witness to the spirit, and our example would help 
to set free our generation. The cause would need its funds, 
but we its servants would be potent in proportion as 
we personally were contented with our poverty. 

I recommend this matter to your serious pondering, 
for it is certain that the prevalent fear of poverty among 
the educated classes is the worst moral disease from which 
our civilisation suffers. 

WILLIAM JAMES (1842-1910), 

' Varieties of Religious Experience.' 

IF you wished to breed lions, you would not care about 
the costliness of their dens, but about the habits of the 
animals ; so, if you attempt to preside over your citizens, 
be not so anxious about the costliness of the buildings as 
careful about the manly character of those who dwell in 

If you wish your house to be well managed, imitate 
the Spartan Lycurgus. For as he did not fence his city 
with walls, but fortified the inhabitants by virtue and 
preserved the city always free ; so do you not cast around 
your house a large court and raise high towers, but 
strengthen the dwellers by good will and fidelity and 
friendship, and then nothing harmful will enter it, not 
even if the whole band of wickedness shall array itself 
against it. 


(Trans, by George Long). 


SELF-TRUST is the essence of heroism Its jest 
is the littleness of common life. That false prudence 
which dotes on health and wealth is the butt and merriment 
of heroism. Heroism, like Plotinus, is almost ashamed of 
its body. . . . 

The brave soul rates itself too high to value itself by 
the splendour of its table and draperies. It gives what 
it hath, and all it hath, but its own majesty can lend a 
better grace to bannocks and fair water than belong to 
city feasts .... 

It does not ask to dine nicely, and to sleep warm. 
The essence of greatness is the perception that virtue is 
enough. Poverty is its ornament. It does not need 
plenty, and can very well abide its loss. 

Essay on ' Heroism.' 

IF I believed that Mammonism with its adjuncts was 
to continue henceforth the one serious principle of our 
existence, I should reckon it idle to solicit remedial measures 
from any Government, the disease being insusceptible of 

Government can do much, but it can in no wise do all. 
Government, as the most conspicuous object in Society 
is called upon to give signal of what shall be done ; and, in 
many ways, to preside over, further, and command the 
doing of it. But the Government cannot do, by all its 
signalling, and commanding, what the Society is radically 
indisposed to do. In the long-run every Government is 
the exact symbol of its People, with their wisdom and un 
wisdom ; we have to say, Like People, like Government 

But it is my firm conviction that the " Hell of Eng 
land " will cease to be that of not " making money " ; 
that we shall get a nobler Hell and a nobler Heaven ! 
I anticipate light in the human chaos, glimmering, shining 
more and more.... Our deity no longer being Mammon, 
O Heavens, each man will then say to himself : " Why 
such deadly haste to make money ? I shall not go to Hell, 


even if I do not make money ! There is another Hell 
I am told ! " Competition at railway speed, in all branches 
of commerce and work will then abate. . . .Bubble-periods, 
with their panics and commercial crises, will then become 
infrequent, steady modest industry will take the place of 
gambling speculation. To be a noble Master, among 
noble Workers, will again be the first ambition with some 
few ; to be a rich Master, only the second. How the 
inventive Genius of England, with the whirr of its bobbins 
and billyrollers shoved somewhat into the backgrounds of 
the brain, will contrive and devise, not the cheaper produce 
exclusively, but fairer distribution of the produce at its 
present cheapness ! By degrees, we shall again have a 
Society with something of Heroism in it, and something of 
Heaven's Blessing on it. 

THOMAS CARLYLE (1795-1881), 

* Past and Present.' 

IF the government is from the heart 
the people will be richer and richer. 
If the government is full of restrictions 
the people will be poorer and poorer. 

Miserable ! you rely upon coming happiness. 

Happy ! you crouch under the dread of coming misery. 

You may know the end from the beginning. 

If a ruler is in line with Inner Life 
his strategy will come right, 
his bad luck will become good, 
and the people will be astonished. 
Things have been so for a long time. 


That is why the self-controlled man* 
is just and hurts no one, 
is disinterested and does no wrong, 
is true and takes no licence ; 
he shines and offends not by his brightness. 

LAO Tzu (B.C. 604), 

' Tao Teh King.' 
(Trans, by Dr. Isabella Mears). 

*The man whose trust lies in the riches of his inner life, 
and not in outward possessions. 

WE live in an age of science abounding in the accumula 
tion of material things. Things of the spirit must 
come first. Unless we cling to that, all our material 
prosperity, overwhelming though it may appear, will turn 
to a barren sceptre in our grasp. 

Independence Day Speech. 

IN our mythology we have the legend that the man 
who performs penances for attaining immortality has 
to meet with temptations sent by Indra, the Lord of the 
Immortals. If he is lured by them he is lost. The West 
has been striving for centuries after its goal of immortality. 
Indra has sent her the temptation to try her. It is the 
gorgeous temptation of wealth. She has accepted it, 
and her civilization of humanity has lost its path in the 
wilderness of machinery. 

This commercialism with its barbarity of ugly decora 
tions is a terrible menace to all humanity, because it is 
setting up the ideal of power over that of perfection. 
It is making the cult of self-seeking exult in its naked 
shamelessness. Our nerves are more delicate than our 
muscles. Things that are the most precious in us are as 
helpless as babes when we take away from them the careful 


protection which they claim from us for their very pre- 
ciousness. Therefore, when the callous rudeness of power 
runs amuck in the broadway of humanity it scares away 
by its grossness the ideals which we have cherished with 
the martyrdom of centuries. 

The temptation which is fatal for the strong is still 
more so for the weak. And I do not welcome it in our 
Indian life, even though it be sent by the Lord of the 
Immortals. Let our life be simple in its outer aspect 
and rich in its inner gain. 

From the above you will know that I am not an econo 
mist. I am willing to acknowledge that there is a law of 
demand and supply and an infatuation of man for more 
things than are good for him. And yet I will persist in 
believing that there is such a thing as the harmony of 
completeness in humanity, where poverty does not take 
away his riches, where defeat may lead him to victory, 
death to immortality, and where in the compensation of 
Eternal Justice those who are the last may yet have their 
insult transmuted into a golden triumph. 

1 Nationalism.' 

LET us consider for a moment what most of the trouble 
and anxiety which I have referred to is about, and how 
much it is necessary that we be troubled, or at least, careful. 
It would be some advantage to live a primitive and frontier 
life, though in the midst of an outward civilisation, if only 
to learn what are the gross necessaries of life, and what 
methods have been taken to obtain them .... For the im 
provements of ages have had but little influence on the 
essential laws of man's existence ; as our skeletons, probably, 
are not to be distinguished from those of our ancestors. 

By the words, necessary of life, I mean whatever, of 
all that man obtains by his own exertions, has been from 
the first or from long use has become, so important to 
human life that few, if any, whether from savageness, or 
poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to do without it 

The necessaries of life for man in this climate may, 
accurately enough, be distributed under the several heads 
of Food, Shelter, Clothing, and Fuel ; for not till we have 
secured these are we prepared to entertain the true problems 
of life with freedom and a prospect of success .... 

At the present day, and in this country, as I find by 
my own experience, a few implements a knife, an axe, a 
spade, a wheelbarrow, etc., and for the studious, lamplight, 
stationery, and access to a few books rank next to neces 
saries, and can all be obtained at a trifling cost. Yet some, 
not wise, go to the other side of the globe, to barbarous and 
unhealthy regions, and devote themselves to trade for ten 
or twenty years, in order that they may live that is, keep 
comfortably warm and die in New England at last .... 

Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts 
of life, are not only not indispensable, but positive hindrances 
to the elevation of mankind. With respect to luxuries and 
comforts, the wisest have ever lived a more simple and 
meagre life than the poor. The ancient philosophers 
Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek were a class than 
which none has been poorer in outward riches, none so 
rich in inward .... 

The same is true of the more modern reformers and 
benefactors of their race. None can be an impartial or 
wise observer of human life but from the vantage ground 
of what we should call voluntary poverty. 


' Walden.' 

THERE is no sin greater than desire, 
There is no misfortune greater than discontent, 
There is no calamity greater than the wish to acquire, 
Therefore to be satisfied is an everlasting sufficiency. 

LAO Tzu (B.C. 604), 

' Tao Teh King.' 
(Trans, by Dr. Isabella Mears). 

THE essence of the Christian revelation is the proclama 
tion of a standard of absolute values, which contradicts 
at every point the estimates of good and evil current in 
' the world.' It is not necessary, in such an essay as this, 
to write out the Beatitudes, or the very numerous passages 
in the Gospels and Epistles in which the same lessons are 
enforced. It is not necessary to remind the reader that in 
Christianity all the paraphernalia of life are valued very 
lightly ; that all the good and all the evil which exalt or 
defile a man have their seat within him, in his own cha 
racter ; that we are sent into the world to suffer and to 
conquer suffering ; that it is more blessed to give than to 
receive ; that love is the great revealer of the mysteries of 
life ; that we have here no continuing city, and must 
therefore set our affections and lay up our treasures in 
heaven ; that the things that are seen are temporal, and the 
things that are not seen are eternal. This is the Christian 
religion. It is a form of idealism ; and idealism means a 
belief in absolute or spiritual values. 

When applied to human life, it introduces, as it were, 
a new currency, which demonetises the old ; or gives us a 
new scale of prices, in which the cheapest things are the 
dearest, and the dearest the cheapest. 

The world's standards are quantitative ; those of 
Christianity are qualitative. And being qualitative, 
spiritual goods are unlimited in amount ; they are increased 
by being shared ; and we rob nobody by taking them. 

DEAN INGE (zoth Century), 
' Outspoken Essays.' 

do the best for yourself, is finally to do the best 
for others." Friends, our great Master said not so ; 
and most absolutely we shall find this world is not made 
so. Indeed, to do the best for others, is finally to do the 
best for ourselves, but it will not do to have our eyes fixed 
on that issue. The Pagans had got beyond that. Hear 
what a Pagan says of this matter ; hear what were, perhaps, 
the lait written words of Plato if not the last actually 


written (for this we cannot know), yet assuredly in fact 
and power his parting words .... 

It is the close of the dialogue called * Critias,' in which 
he describes, partly from real tradition, partly in ideal 
dream, the early state of Athens .... And this, he says, 
was the end ; that indeed " through many generations, 
so long as the God's nature in them yet was full, they were 
submissive to the sacred laws, and carried themselves 
lovingly to all that had kindred with them in divineness ; 
for their uttermost spirit was faithful and true, and in 
everywise great ; so that, in all meekness of wisdom, they 
dealt with each other, and took all the chances of life ; 
and despising all things except virtue, they cared little what 
happened day by day, and bore lightly the burden of gold 
and of possessions ; for they saw that, if only their common 
love and virtue increased, all these things would be increased 
together with them ; but to set their esteem and ardent 
pursuit upon material possession, would be to lose that first, 
and their virtue and affection together with it. 

" And by such reasoning, and what of the divine nature 
remained in them, they gained all this greatness of which 
we have already told ; but when the God's part of them 
faded and became extinct, being mixed again and again, 
and effaced by the prevalent mortality ; and the human 
nature at last exceeded, they then became unable to endure 
the courses of fortune ; and fell into shapelessness of life, 
and baseness in the sight of him who could see, having 
lost everything that was fairest of their honour ; while 
to the blind hearts which could not discern the true life, 
tending to happiness, it seemed that they were then chiefly 
noble and happy, being filled with all iniquity of inordinate 
possession and power. Whereupon, the God of Gods, 
whose Kingdom is in laws, beholding a once just nation 
thus cast into misery, and desiring to lay such punishment 
upon them as might make them repent into restraining, 
gathered together all the gods into his dwelling-place, 
which from heaven's centre overlooks whatever has part 
in creation ; and having assembled them, he said " 

The rest is silence. So ended are the last words of 
the chief wisdom of the heathen, spoken of this idol of 


riches ; this idol of yours ; this golden image, high by 
measureless cubits, set up where your green fields of England 
are furnace-burnt into the likeness of the plain of Dura : 
this idol, forbidden to us, first of all idols, by our own 
Master and faith ; forbidden to us also by every human lip 
that has ever, in any age or people, been accounted of as 
able to speak according to the purposes of God. Continue 
to make that forbidden deity your principal one, and soon 
no more art, no more science, no more pleasure will be 
possible. Catastrophe wiU come ; or, worse than catas 
trophe, slow mouldering and withering into Hades. But 
if you can fix some conception of a true human state of 
life to be striven for life for all men as for yourselves 
if you can determine some honest and simple order of 
existence ; following those trodden ways of wisdom, which 
are pleasantness, and seeking her quiet and withdrawn 
paths, which are peace ; then, and so sanctifying wealth 
into " common-wealth," all your art, your literature, your 
daily labours, your domestic affection, and citizen's duty, 
will join and increase into one magnificent harmony. 

JOHN RUSKIN (1819-1900), 
' Crown of Wild Olive.' 

FOR the kingdom of God is not meat and drink ; but 
righteousness and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. 

Romans xir. 

AS for gold and silver, we must tell them that they are 
in perpetual possession of a divine species of the precious 
metals placed in their souls by the gods themselves, and 
therefore have no need of the earthly ore ; that in fact it 
would be profanation to pollute their spiritual riches by 
mixing them with the possession of mortal gold, because 
the world's coinage has been the cause of countless impieties, 
whereas theirs is undefiled : therefore to them, as distin 
guished from the rest of the people, it is forbidden to handle 


or touch gold or silver, or enter under the same roof with 
them, or to wear them on their dresses, or to drink out 
of the precious metals. If they follow these rules, they 
will be safe themselves and the saviours of the city : but 
whenever they come to possess lands, and houses, and 
money of their own, they will be householders and cul 
tivators instead of guardians, and will become hostile 
masters of their fellow-citizens rather than their allies ; 
and so they will spend their whole lives, hating and hated, 
plotting and plotted against, standing in more frequent 
and intense alarm of their enemies at home than of their 
enemies abroad ; by which time they and the rest of the 
city will be running on the very brink of ruin. 

' The Republic of Plato, 5 Book III. 
(B.C. 427-347). 

r I ^HOSE who would build our civilization on the basis 
J- of materialism only will find themselves on the pathway 
to perdition. 

Rev. H. R. L. SHEPPARD (2Oth Century). 

NO one will dispute that the world to-day is indulging 
in an orgy of egoism. All classes are egoistic the 
capitalist, the commercial, the political, the working class ; 
the churches also cannot be exonerated from the charge. 
Profiteering, strikes, lock-outs, all are evidence of the fact 
that everyone is out to get what he can for himself, without 
thought of others. Bolshevism, which sacrifices for one 
section of society every other section ; Sinn Feinism, which 
means literally " Ourselves alone," are modern epitomes 
of egoism run riot 

The laws controlling the evolution of society are 
indeed the exact reverse of those responsible for the evolu 
tion of the individual. In the jungle stage of life, the 


keynote of success is satisfaction egoism and the most 
valuable qualities are physical. When there is no social 
law, and everyone has to fight literally for his existence, 
physical force decides survival, and the physically weaker 
perish. In short, egoism and physical force are essentials 
of survival. But in social life the keynote of success is 
self-sacrifice altruism and the most valuable qualities are 
spiritual ideals and moral obligations the obligations of 
one individual to another, of one class to another, of one 
nation to another. If the rich, for instance, are not willing 
to sacrifice some of the riches they have secured in the 
struggle for survival, in other words to be taxed, and 
heavily taxed, for the benefit of those who have been less 
successful in the struggle : if the workers are not willing 
to make some concessions in the way of liberty, time, and 
energy, for the benefit of the community : if employers 
whittle wages down to the lowest living wage, and if the 
workers, in revenge, give the scantiest minimum of labour : 
if all fight together to exhaustion, on every possible occasion, 
by strikes and lock-outs the result is social ruin, and 
society cannot hold together ; for trade and prosperity 
no longer tamely follow the flag, they follow peace. In 
short, not egoism and the physical forces, but altruism and 
the moral and spiritual forces, are the essentials of social 

Mrs. M. A. STOBART, 

The Hibbert Journal, April, 1922. 

" I "HIS know also, that in the last days perilous times 
-L shall come. 

For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, 
boasters, proud. 

2 Timothy iii. 


IN each human heart terror survives 
The ravin it has gorged. The loftiest fear 
All that they would disdain to think were true : 
Hypocrisy and Custom make their minds 
The fanes of many a worship now outworn. 
They dare not devise good for man's estate, 
And yet they know not that they do not dare. 
The good want power but to weep barren tears : 
The powerful goodness want worse need for them : 
The wise want love : and those who love want wisdom ; 
And all best things are thus confused to ill. 
Many are strong and rich, and would be just, 
But live among their suffering fellow-men 
As if none felt : they know not what they do. ... 
The nations thronged around, and cried aloud, 
As with one voice, " Truth, Liberty and Love ! " 
Suddenly fierce confusion fell from heaven 
Among them : there was strife, deceit and fear : 
Tyrants rushed in, and did divide the spoil. 
This was the shadow of the truth I saw. 

* Prometheus Unbound.' 

WAR is just the fruition, on a national scale, of a habit 
of thought and will, cultivated and fostered by the 
conditions in which people ordinarily have to get their 
living. As long as these conditions encourage the desire 
to get, rather than the love of giving, and put a premium 
on possession instead of on service, so long will the world 
be liable to war. 

If humanity is not to be crucified again in this way, 
industrial conditions must be so changed that the children 
are not encouraged and even forced by them to form 
these habits of thought and will. 

Rev. E. J. HAWKINS (2oth Century), 
* The Child.' 


THE peacemakers are precisely those who strive against 
strife, who pacify and establish concord. Love of self 
is the root of every war love of self which becomes love 
of riches, pride of possession, envy of them who are more 
richly endowed, and contempt for the humble. 

GIOVANNI PAPINI (aoth Century), 

The Story of Christ.' 
(Trans, by Mary Prichard Agnetti.) 

HE who owns nothing, to nothing attached him call 
I Brahmin 

Who no more clings to delight than water to petal 
of lotus or mustard-seed to point of awl him do I call 

Haunting the company neither of householder nor 
ascetic, having no home, wanting but little such an one 
call I Brahmin. 

Friendly among the hostile, tranquil among the 
turbulent, amid the grasping, ungrasping such an one 
call I Brahmin. 

From whom lust and hatred and pride and envy have 
fallen away like the mustard-seed from the point of the 
awl him call I Brahmin 

From the * Dhammapada,' or ' Way of Truth.' 

(5th Century B.C.) 
(Trans, by Silacara (Bhikkhu). 

T^vETACHMENT and purity go hand in hand, for 
L-' purity is but detachment of the heart ; and where 
these are present they bring with them that humble spirit 
of obedience which expresses detachment of will. We may 
therefore treat them as three manifestations of one thing : 
which thing is Inward Poverty. " Blessed are the poor in 
spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven," is the motto 
of all pilgrims on this road 


" In detachment the spirit finds quiet and repose, 
for coveting nothing, nothing wearies it by elation ; and 
nothing oppresses it by dejection, because it stands in the 
centre of its own humility. For as soon as it covets any 
thing it is immediately fatigued thereby." 

It is not love but lust the possessive case, the very 
food of self-hood which poisons the relation between the 
self and the external world and " immediately fatigues " the 
soul. . . . 

Accept Poverty, however, demolish ownership, the 
verb " to have " in every mood and tense and this down 
ward drag is at an end. At once the Cosmos belongs to 
you and you to it. You escape the heresy of separateness, 
are " made one," and merged in " the greater life of the 
All." Then, a free spirit in a free world, the self moves 
upon its true orbit undistracted by the largely self-imposed 
responsibilities of ordinary earthly existence. 

This was the truth which St. Francis of Assisi grasped 
and applied with the energy of a reformer and the delicate 
originality of a poet to every circumstance of the inner 
and the outer life. This noble liberty it is which is extolled 
by his spiritual descendant Jacopone da Todi, in one of 
his most magnificent odes : 

Poverta alto sapere 
a nulla cosa sojacere 
en desprezo possedere 
tutte le cose create. . . . 

Dio non alberga en core strecto 
tant' e grande quantai affecto 
povertate ha si gran pecto 
che ci alberga deitate .... 

Povertate e nulla havere 
et nulla cosa poi volere 
et omne cosa possedere 
en spirito de libertate. 


(Oh Poverty, high wisdom ! to be subject to nothing 
and by despising all to possess all created things . . 

God will not lodge in a narrow heart ; and it is as great 

as thy love. 

Poverty has so ample a bosom that Deity itself may 
lodge therein . . 

Poverty is naught to have and nothing to desire : 
but all things to possess in the spirit of liberty.) 

EVELYN UNDERBILL (zoth Century), 
' An Introduction to Mysticism.' 

THE joy which is dependent upon the possession of the 
merely visible and material can never reach the inmost 
spirit of man, even were such possession not, at best, un 
certain and of its nature transitory. Nay, the joy of life, 
which springs from man's own spirit, is impossible to him 
whose heart is set upon the merely external world. For 
the spiritual and the material are in immediate aspect a 
simple antithesis ; so that where the one is, the other 
cannot be. " You cannot serve God and mammon." 

FATHER CUTHBERT, O.S.F.C. (zoth Century), 

Commentary on * The Lady Poverty.' 

AND Joy shall overtake us as a flood, 
When every thing that is sincerely good 
And perfectly divine. 

With Truth, and Peace, and Love, shall ever shine 
About the supreme throne 
Of Him, to whose happy-making sight alone 
When once our heavenly-guided soul shall climb; 
Then all this earthly grossness quit, 
Attir'd with stars, we shall forever sit, 
Triumphing over Death, and Chance, and thee, O Time. 

JOHN MILTON (1608-1674), 
' On Time.' 

The Poverty of Riches 

All that we have and are is borrowed. 


Soul, the centre of my sinful earth, 
- Fool'd by these rebel powers that thee array, 
Why dost thou pine within and suffer dearth, 
Painting thy outward walls so costly gay ? 
Why so large cost, having so short a lease, 
Dost thou upon thy fading mansion spend ? 
Shall worms, inheritors of this excess, 
Eat up thy charge ? Is this the bodie's end ? 
Then, Soul, live thou upon thy servant's loss, 
And let that pine, to aggravate thy store ; 
Buy terms divine in selling hours of dross ; 
Within be fed, without be rich no more : 
So shalt thou feed on Death, that feeds on men, 
And Death once dead, there's no more dying then. 


CHRISTIAN. This town of Fair-speech I have heard 
of, and, as I remember, they say it is a wealthy place. 

BYENDS. Yes, I will assure you that it is ; and I have 
very many rich kindred there. 

CHRISTIAN. Pray who are your kindred there, if a 
man may be so bold ? 

BYENDS. Almost the whole town ; and, in particular, 
my Lord Turn-about, my Lord Time-server, my Lord 
Fair-speech, from whose ancestors that town first took 
its name : also Mr. Smooth-man, Mr. Facing-both-ways, 
Mr. Anything ; and the parson of our parish, Mr. Two- 
tongues, was my mother's own brother by father's side : 
and to tell you the truth, I am become a gentleman of good 
quality, yet my great-grandfather was but a waterman, 
looking one way and rowing another, and I got most of 
my estate by the same occupation. 

JOHN BUNYAN (1628-1688), 

' Pilgrim's Progress.' 


THOU art not thyself ; 

For thou exist'st on many a thousand grains 
That issue out of dust. Happy thou art not ; 
For what thou hast not, still thou striv'st to get. 
And what thou hast, forget'st 

If thou art rich, thou'rt poor ; 
For, like an ass whose back with ingots bows, 
Thou bear'st thy heavy riches but a journey, 
And death unloads thee. 

c Measure for Measure.' 

T^XTOL not riches then, the toil of fools, 
-<t The wise man's cumbrance, if not snare, more apt 
To slacken virtue, and abate her edge, 
Than prompt her to do aught may merit praise. 

A crown 

Golden in show, is but a wreath of thorns, 
Brings dangers, troubles, cares, and sleepless nights 
To him who wears the regal diadem. 

JOHN MILTON (1608-1674), 
* Paradise Regained.' 


THE time was once, and may againe retorne, 
(For ought may happen, that hath bene beforne) 
When shepeheards had none inheritaunce, 
Ne of land, nor fee in sufferaunce, 
But what might arise of the bare sheepe, 
(Were it more or lesse) which they did keepe. 
Well ywis was it with shepheards thoe : 
Nought having, nought feared they to forgoe ; 
For Pan himselfe was their inheritaunce, 
And little them served for their mayntenaunce. 
The shepheard's God so wel them guided, 
That of nought they were unprovided ; 
Butter enough, honye, milke and whay, 
And their flockes fleeces them to arraye : 
But tract of time, and long prosperitie, 
That nource of vice, this of insolencie, 
Lulled the shepheards in such securitie, 
That, not content with loyall obeysaunce, 
Some gan to gape for greedie governaunce, 
And match themselfe with mighty potentates, 
Lovers of Lordship, and troublers of states. 
Tho gan shepheards swaines to looke aloft, 
And leave to live hard, and learne to ligge soft ; 
Tho, under colour of shepheards, somewhile 
There crept in Wolves, ful of fraude, and guile, 
That often devoured their owne sheepe, 
And often the shepheards that did hem keepe : 
This was the first sourse of shepheards sorrowe, 
That now nill be quitt with baile nor borrowe. 

EDMUND SPENSER (1552-1599), 
' The Shepheards Calender.' 

IN the man who takes no heed, craving grows great like 
the Maluva creeper. He leaps from existence to exist 
ence, like the monkey in the forest looking for fruit. 

Whoso is overcome of this wretched craving and lust, 

his sorrows grow and increase like Birana grass after rain. 

But whoso overcomes it, this wretched craving so 

difficult to overcome his sorrows fall from him as the 

water-drop falls from the lotus. 


To all assembled here this excellent counsel I utter : 
Dig up the root of craving like the digger of the Birana 
grass root. Let not Mara break you again, and again, as 
the river the reed. 

As a tree cut down sprouts forth again if its roots 
remain uninjured and strong ; so the propensity to craving 
not being done away, this suffering springs up again and 

Beset of lust, the mass of men run this way and that 
like a hunted hare. Wherefore of lust be rid, 6 Bhikkhu, 
that aspirest to freedom from passion. 

Heavy bonds, say the wise, are not those that are made 
of iron or wood or grass, but rather ardent delight in jewels 
and ornament, attachment to children and wives. 

A weighty bond is this, declare the wise, holding men 
down, and loose yet hard to be rid of. Cutting this off, 
some take to the homeless life, looking not back, forsaking 
pleasure and lust. 

From the ' Dhammapada ' or l Way of Truth.' 

(5th Century, B.C.) 
(Trans, by Silacara (Bhikkhu).) 

VIRTUE then should be desired by all men more than 
wealth, which is dangerous to the foolish ; for the 
wickedness of men is increased by wealth. And the more 
a man is without sense, the more violent is he in excess, 
for he has the means of satisfying his mad desire for 

Epictetus (A.D. 50), 

(Trans, by George Long.) 

"PRISONER, tell me, who was it that bound you ? " 
L " It was my master," said the prisoner. " I thought 
I could outdo everybody in the world in wealth and power, 
and I amassed in my own treasure-house the money due 
to my king. When sleep overcame me I lay upon the bed 
that was for my lord, and on waking up I found I was 
a prisoner in my own treasure-house." 


" Prisoner, tell me, who was it that wrought this 
unbreakable chain ? " 

" It was I," said the prisoner, " who forged this chain 
very carefully. I thought my invincible power would 
hold the world captive, leaving me in a freedom undisturbed. 
Thus night and day I worked at the chain with huge fires 
and cruel hard strokes. When at last the work was done 
and the links were complete and unbreakable, I found 
that it held me in its grip." 

* GitanjahV 

AND the people asked him, saying, What shall we do 
then ? He answereth and saith unto them, He that 
hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none ; 
and he that hath meat, let him do likewise. 

Then came also publicans to be baptised, and said 
unto him, Master, what shall we do ? 

And he said unto them, Exact no more than that 
which is appointed you. 

And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, 
And what shall we do ? And he said unto them, Do 
violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely ; and be 
content with your wages. 

Luke iii. 

AND when he was gone forth into the way, there came 
one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good 
Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life ? 

And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good ? 
there is none good but one, that is, God. 

Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit 
adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, 
Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother. 

And he answered and said unto him, Master all these 
have I observed from my youth. 


Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto 
him, One thing thou lackest : go thy way, sell whatsoever 
thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have 
treasure in heaven : and come, take up the cross, and 
follow me. 

And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved : 
for he had great possessions. 

And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his 
disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter 
into the kingdom of God ! 

And the disciples were astonished at his words. 

But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, 
Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to 
enter into the kingdom of God ! 

It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a 
needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of 

And they were astonished out of measure. 

Mark x. 


Cleanse thyself from the defilement of riches, and in 
perfect peace, enter the heavens of Poverty ; then from 
out the fountain of death, thou shalt drink the wine of 
immortal life. 


Detach thyself from worldly bonds, and escape 
from the prison of the self. Seize the passing moment, 
for it will return to thee no more. 

BAHA'U'LLAH (1817-1892), 

(Trans, from the Persian). 

' I ' l'' '! ' * -*T i ? " ' i -1 . ' 

OYE that are Guardians of My Treasures, glorify their 
use, and Me in them ! Receive with joy that which 

1 have entrusted to you : for, in your hand, the tool of the 
worker shall become the sceptre of kings. 

O My Servant ! walk thou so, that thy house and 
thy province shall rejoice that I have made of thee 
a Steward of My bounty. 


It was said of old, Give a tenth of thy substance. 
I say not unto thee, Give a tenth ! All shall be given for 
Me ! In this shall be thy joy, that thou art the Steward 
of My Love ; and in this shall men envy thee, thy delight 
to give ! 

A. M. BUCKTON (zoth Century), 

' Words out of the Silence.' 

CUT away the bond of thine own " I " as one cuts the 
lotus in autumn. Give thyself to following the path 
of peace, of Nibbana made known by the Blessed One. 

" Here shall I live in the season of rain ; here, in the 
cold season ; here, in the hot " ; thus to himself thinks 
the fool, all unwitting of what may come between. 

Then that man whose delight is in abundance of 
children and flocks, his mind set upon having and holding, 
death seizes and carries him off as a great flood a sleeping 

Refuge is none in children or father or kinsfolk. When 
thou thyself art assailed of death, kinsmen can give thee no 

This thing thoroughly knowing, the wise, the controlled 
in conduct delays not to clear for himself the Way that 
leads to Nibbana. 

From the * Dhammapada,' or c Way of Truth.' 

(5th Century B.C.) 
(Trans, by Silacara (Bhikkhu).) 


Y the practice of Inner Life stillness 
we can continually conquer all things. 

By the practice of returning to possessions, 

nothing that we conquer will be sufficient for us. 

LAO Tzu (B.C. 604), 
' Tao Teh King.' 
(Trans, by Dr. Isabella Mears.) 

NO man who loves money, and loves pleasure, and loves 
fame, also loves mankind, but only he who loves virtue. 

Examine yourself whether you wish to be rich or to 
be happy. If you wish to be rich, you should know that 
it is neither a good thing nor at all in your power : but 
if you wish to be happy, you should know that it is both 
a good thing and in your power, for the one is a temporary 
loan of fortune, and happiness comes from the will. 

As it is better to lie compressed in a narrow bed 
and be healthy than to be tossed with disease on a broad 
couch, so also it is better to contract yourself within a 
small competence and to be happy than to have a great 
fortune and to be wretched. 

Epictetus (A.D. 50), 

(Trans, by George Long). 

FOR most men in a brazen prison live, 
Where, in the sun's hot eye, 
With heads bent o'er their toil, they languidly 
Their lives to some unmeaning taskwork give, 
Dreaming of nought beyond their prison-wall. 
And as, year after year, 
Fresh products of their barren labour fall 
From their tired hands, and rest 
Never yet comes more near, 
Gloom settles slowly down over their breast ; 
And while they try to stem 

The waves of mournful thought by which they are prest, 
Death in their prison reaches them, 
Unfreed, having seen nothing, still unblest. 

' A Summer Night.' 


WHEN God at first made man, 
Having a glasse of blessings standing by, 
" Let us " (said He) " poure on him all we can ; 
Let the world's riches, which dispersed lie, 
Contract into a span." 

So strength first made a way, 

Then beautie flow'd, then wisdome, honour, pleasure ; 

When almost all was out, God made a stay, 

Perceiving that, alone of all His treasure, 

Rest in the bottome, lay. 

" For if I should " (said He), 
" Bestow this Jewell also on My creature, 
He would adore My gifts instead of Me, 
And rest in Nature, not the God of Nature : 
So both should losers be. 

Yet let him keep the rest, 
But keep them with repining restlessnesse ; 
Let him be rich and wearie, that at least, 
If goodnesse leade him not, yet wearinesse 
May tosse him to my breast." 

GEORGE HERBERT (1593-1633). 
' The Pulley.' 

THOU who condemnest Jewish hate 
For choosing Barabbas a murderer 
Before the Lord of glorie, 
Look back upon thine own estate, 
Call home thine eye, that busie wanderer, 
That choice may be thy storie. 

He that doth love, and love amisse, 

This world's delights, before true Christian joy, 

Hath made a Jewish choice ; 
The World an ancient murderer is ; 
Thousands of souls it hath and doth destroy 

With her enchanting voice. 


He that hath made a sorrie wedding 

Between his soul and gold, and hath preferr'd 

False gain before the true, 
Hath done what he condemns in reading ; 
For he hath sold for money his deare Lord, 

And is a Judas-Jew. 

GEORGE HERBERT (1593-1633), 
1 Self-condemnation.' 

"\7'OU will find it quite indisputably true that whenever 
A money is the principal object of life with either man or 
nation, it is both got ill, and spent ill ; and does harm both 
in the getting and the spending ; but when it is not the 
principal object, it and all other things will be well got, 
and well spent. And here is the test with every man, of 
whether money is the principal object with him, or not. 
If in mid-life he could pause and say, " Now I have enough 
to live upon, I'll live upon it ; and having well earned it, 
I will also well spend it, and go out of the world poor, 
as I came into it," then money is not principal with him ; 
but if, having enough to live upon in the manner befitting 
his character and rank, he still wants to make more, and 
to die rich, then money is the principal object with him, 
and it becomes a curse to himself, and generally to those 
who spend it after him. 

JOHN RUSKIN (1819-1900), 
1 Crown of Wild Olive.' 

MAMMON, the least erected spirit that fell 
From heav'n ; for ev'n in heaven his looks and thoughts 
Were always downward bent, admiring more 
The riches of heav'n's pavement, trodden gold, 
Than aught divine or holy else enjoy'd 
In vision beatific. 

JOHN MILTON (1608-1674), 
* Paradise Lost.' 


MONEY, thou bane of blisse and source of woe, 
Whence com'st thou, that thou art so fresh and fine ? 
I know thy parentage is base and low 

Man found thee poore and dirtie in a mine. 

Surely thou didst so little contribute 

To this great Kingdome which thou now hast got, 
That he was fain, when thou wert destitute, 

To digge thee out of thy dark cave and grot, 

Then forcing thee, by fire he made thee bright : 
Nay, thou hast got the face of man ; for we 

Have with our stamp and seal transferred our right ; 
Thou art the man, and man but drosse to thee. 

Man calleth thee his wealth, who made thee rich ; 
And while he digs out thee, falls in the ditch. 

GEORGE HERBERT (1593-1633), 
* Avarice.' 

HANKER not too much after worldly prosperity that 
corpulent cigar ; if you became a millionaire you would 
probably go swimming around for more like a diseased 

Look to it that what you are doing is not merely 
toddling to a competency. Perhaps that must be your 
fate, but fight it and then, though you fail, you may still 
be among the elect of whom we have spoken. Many 
a brave man has had to come to it at last. But there are 
the complacent toddlers from the start. 

Sir JAMES BARRIE (zoth Century), 
* Courage.' 


IN cities should we English lie, 
Where cries are rising ever new, 
And men's incessant stream goes by, 
We who pursue 

Our business with unslackening stride, 

Traverse in troops, with care-filled breast, 

The soft Mediterranean side, 
The Nile, the East, 

And see all sights from pole to pole, 
And glance, and nod, and bustle by, 

And never once possess our soul 
Before we die. 

MATTHEW ARNOLD (1822-1888). 
4 A Southern Night.' 

WHEN I first paddled a boat on Walden, it was com 
pletely surrounded by thick and lofty pine and oak 
woods, and in some of its coves grape vines had run over 
the trees next the water and formed bowers under which 
a boat could pass. The hills which form its shores are so 
steep, and the woods on them were then so high, that, 
as you looked down from the west end, it had the appearance 
of an amphitheatre for some kind of sylvan spectacle. I 
have spent many an hour, when I was younger, floating 
over its surface as the Zephyr willed, having paddled my 
boat to the middle, and lying on my back across the seats, 
in a summer forenoon, dreaming awake, until I was aroused 
by the boat touching the sand, and I arose to see what 
shore my fates had impelled me to days when idleness 
was the most attractive and productive industry. Many 
a forenoon have I stolen away, preferring to spend thus 
the most valued part of the day ; for I was rich, if not 

in money, in sunny hours and summer days 

But since I left those shores the wood-choppers have 
still further laid them waste . . 

Flint's Pond!.. . .What right had the unclean and 
stupid farmer, whose farm abutted on this sky water, 
whose shores he has ruthlessly laid bare, to give his name 
to it ? Some skinflint, who loved better the reflecting 
surface of a dollar, or a bright cent, in which he could see 
his own brazen face ; who regarded even the wild ducks 
which settled in it as trespassers .... 

I respect not his labours, his farm where everything 
has its price, who would carry the landscape, who would 
carry his God, to market, if he could get anything for him ; 
.... whose fields bear no crops, whose meadows no flowers, 
whose trees no fruits, but dollars ; who loves not the beauty 
of his fruits, whose fruits are not ripe for him till they 
are turned to dollars. Give me the poverty that enjoys 
true wealth. Farmers are respectable and interesting to 
me in proportion as they are poor poor farmers .... 

White Pond and Walden are great crystals on the sur 
face of the earth, Lakes of Light. If they were permanently 
congealed, and small enough to be clutched, they would, 
perchance, be carried off by slaves, like precious stones, 
to adorn the heads of emperors ; but being liquid, and 
ample, and secured to us and our successors for ever, we 
disregard them, and run after the diamond of Koh-i-noor. 
They are too pure to have a market-value ; they contain 
no muck. How much more beautiful than our lives, 
how much more transparent than our characters, are they ! 
We never learned meanness of them. How much fairer 
than the pool before the farmer's door, in which his ducks 
swim ! Hither the clean wild ducks come. Nature has 
no human inhabitant who appreciates her. The birds 
with their plumage and their notes are in harmony with 
the flowers, but what youth or maiden conspires with the 
wild luxuriant beauty of Nature ? She flourishes most 
alone, far from the towns where they reside. Talk of heaven, 
ye disgrace earth ! 

' Walden.' 


ILL fares the land, to hast'ning ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates and men decay. 
Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade, 

A breath can make them, as a breath has made, 
But a bold peasantry, their country's pride, 
When once destroyed, can never be supplied. 

A time there was, ere England's griefs began, 

When every rood of ground maintain'd its man ; 

For him light labour spread her wholesome store, 
Just gave what life requir'd but gave no more : 

His best companions, innocence and health ; 
And his best riches, ignorance of wealth. 

But times are alter'd ; trade's unfeeling train 
Usurp the land and dispossess the swain ; 

Along the lawn where scatter'd hamlets rose, 
Unwieldy wealth and cumbrous pomp repose ; 

And every want to luxury allied, 

And every pang that folly pays to pride. 

Those gentler hours that plenty bade to bloom, 
Those calm desires that ask'd but little room, 

Those healthful sports that grac'd the peaceful scene^ 
Liv'd in each look, and brighten'd all the green ; 

These, far departing, seek a kinder shore, 

And rural mirth and manners are no more.. 

Sweet was the sound, when oft at ev'ning's close, 

Up yonder hill the village murmur rose ; 
There, as I pass'd with careless steps and slow, 

The mingled notes came softened from below ; 
The swain responsive as the milkmaid sung, 

The sober herd that low'd to meet their young, 
The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool, 

The playful children just let loose from school, 


The watch-dog's voice that bay'd the whisp'ring wind, 

And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind ; 
These all in sweet confusion sought the shade, 

And filPd each pause the nightingale had made. 
But now the sounds of population fail, 

No cheerful murmurs fluctuate in the gale, 
No busy steps the grass-grown foot-way tread, 

But all the blooming flush of life is fled 

Near yonder copse, where once the garden smil'd, 

And still where many a garden flower grows wild ; 
There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose, 

The village preacher's modest mansion rose. 
A man he was, to all the country dear, 

And passing rich with forty pounds a year, 
Remote from towns he ran his godly race, 

Nor e'er had changed, nor wish'd to change his place ; 
Unskilful he to fawn, or seek for power 

By doctrines fashion'd to the varying hour ; 
Far other aims his heart had learn'd to prize, 

More bent to raise the wretched than to rise. . . . 

At church, with meek and unaffected grace, 

His looks adorn'd the venerable place ; 
Truth from his lips prevail'd with double sway, 

And fools who came to scoff, remain'd to pray, 
The service past, around the pious man, 

With steady zeal, each honest rustic ran : 
Ev'n children followed, with endearing wile, 

And pluck'd his gown, to share the good man's smile. 
His ready smile a parent's warmth exprest ; 

Their welfare pleas'd him, and their cares distrest ; 
To them his heart, his love, his griefs, were given, 

But all his serious thoughts had rest in Heaven. 
As some tall cliff that lifts its awful form, 

Swells from the vale, and midway leaves the storm, 
Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread, 

Eternal sunshine settles on its head . , 


Near yonder thorn that lifts its head on high, 
Where once the sign-post caught the passing eye, 

Low lies the house where nut-brown draughts inspir'd, 
Where grey-beard mirth, and smiling toil, retir'd ; 

Where village statesmen talked with looks profound, 
And news much older than their ale went round. , 

Yes ! let the rich deride, the proud disdain, 
These simple blessings of the lowly train ; 

To me more dear, congenial to my heart, 

One native charm, than all the gloss of art .... 

Ye friends of truth, ye statesmen who survey 
The rich man's joys increase, the poor's decay, 

'Tis yours to judge, how wide the limits stand 
Between a splendid and a happy land .... 

Yet count our gains, this wealth is but a name 

That leaves our useful products still the same. 
Not so the loss. The man of wealth and pride, 

Takes up a space that many poor supplied ; 
Space for his lake, his park's extended bounds, 

Space for his horses, equipage and hounds ; 
The robe that wraps his limbs in silken cloth, 

Has robb'd the neighbouring fields of half their growth ; 
His seat, where solitary sports are seen, 

Indignant spurns the cottage from the green ; 
Around the world each needful product flies, 

For all the luxuries of the world supplies, 
While thus the land, adorn'd for pleasure all, 

In barren splendour feebly waits the fall 

O Luxury ; thou curs'd by Heaven's decree, 

How iU exchang'd are things like these for thee ! 

How do thy potions with insidious joy, 
Diffuse their pleasures only to destroy ! . . . . 


And them sweet Poetry, thou loveliest maid, 

Still first to fly, where sensual joys invade ; . . . . 
Still let thy voice, prevailing over time, 

Redress the rigours of th' inclement clime ; 
Aid slighted truth, with thy persuasive strain, 

Teach erring man to spurn the rage of gain ; 
Teach him that states, of native strength possest, 

Though very poor, may still be very blest ; 
That trade's proud empire hastes to swift decay, 

As ocean sweeps the laboured mole away ; 
While self-dependent power can time defy, 

As rocks resist the billows and the sky. 

OLIVER GOLDSMITH (1728-1774), 
' The Deserted Village.* 

HEAR this, O ye that swallow up the needy, even to 
make the poor of the land to fail, 

Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may 
sell corn? and the Sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, 
making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying 
the balances by deceit ? 

The Lord hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, 
Surely I will never forget any of their works .... 

I will turn your feasts into mourning. 

Behold the days come, saith the Lord God, that I 
will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor 
a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord. 

Amos viii. 

WE say that we are civilized, because we are rich and 
strong and have acquired more knowledge. But to 
the East civilization is self-culture, and it calls us uncivilized 
because we cultivate everything except ourselves. We 
surround ourselves with comfort and with beauty and 
remain unlovely masters of it all. 

H. FIELDING HALL (20 Century), 
'The Inward Light.' 


ARISE up England, from the smoky cloud 
That covers thee, the din of whirling wheels : 
Not the pale spinner, prematurely bowed 

By his hot toil, alone the influence feels 
Of all this deep necessity for gain : 

Gain still : but deem not only by the strain 
Of engines on the sea and on the shore, 

Glory that was thy birthright to retain. 
O thou that knewest not a conqueror, 

Unchecked desires have multiplied in thee, 
Till with their bat-wings they shut out the sun : 

So in the dusk thou goest moodily, 
With a bent head, as one who gropes for ore, 

Heedless of living streams that round him run. 

Lord HANMER (1809-1881), 
' Fra Cipolla.' 

O FRIEND ! I know not which way I must look 
For comfort, being, as I am, opprest, 
To think that now our life is only drest 

For show ; mean handywork of craftsman, cook, 

Or groom I We must run glittering like a brook 
In the open sunshine, or we are unblest ; 

The wealthiest man among us is the best : 
No grandeur now in Nature or in book. 

Delights us. Rapine, avarice, expense, 

This is idolatry ; and these we adore : 
Plain living and high thinking are no more. 

The homely beauty of the good old cause 

Is gone ; our peace, our fearful innocence, 
And pure religion breathing household laws. 

* London, 1802.' 


O ENGLAND, full of sinne, but most of sloth ! 
Spit out thy flegme, and fill thy breast with glorie. 
Thy gentry bleats, as if thy native cloth 
Transfus'd a sheepishness into thy storie ; 
Not that they all are so, but that the most 
Are gone to grasse, and in the pasture lost. 

This losse springs chiefly from our education : 
Some till their ground, but let weeds choke their sonne ; 
Some mark a partridge, never their childe's fashion ; 
Some ship them over, and the thing is done. 

Studie this art, make it thy great designe ; 

And if God's image move thee not, let thine. 

Some great estates provide, but do not breed 

A mast'ring minde ; so both are lost thereby. 

Or els they breed them tender, make them need 

All that they leave ; this is flat povertie ; 

For he that needs five thousand pounds to live 
Is full as poore as he that needs but five. 

The way to make thy sonne rich is to fill 
His minde with rest, before his trunk with riches : 
For wealth without contentment climbs a hill, 
To feel those tempests which fly over ditches ; 

But if thy sonne can make ten pound his measure, 
Then all thou addest may be caU'd his treasure. 

Be thrifty, but not covetous ; therefore give 
Thy need, thine honour, and thy friend his due. 
Never was scraper brave man. Get to live ; 
Then live, and use it ; els it is not true 

That thou hast gotten. Surely use alone 

Makes money not a contemptible stone. 

GEORGE HERBERT (1593-1633), 
1 The Church Porch.' 


NOW they were come up with the hill Lucre, where 
the silver mine was, which took Demas off from his 
pilgrimage, and into which, as some think, By-ends fell 
and perished ; wherefore they considered that. 

But when they were come to the old monument. . . .to 
wit, to the pillar of salt y that stood also within view of 
Sodom, and its stinking lake, they marvelled, as did 
Christian before, that men of that knowledge and ripeness 
of wit, as they were, should be so blind as to turn aside 

JOHN BUNYAN (1628-1688), 
' Pilgrim's Progress.' 

IT is with the hope of awakening here and there a British 
man to know himself for a man and divine soul, that a 
few words of parting admonition, to all persons to whom 
the Heavenly Powers have lent power of any kind in this 
land, may now be addressed .... 

The Leaders of Industry, if Industry is ever to be led, 
are virtually the Captains of the World ! If there be no 
nobleness in them, there will never be an Aristocracy more. 
But let the Captains of Industry consider : once again, are 
they born of other clay than the old Captains of Slaughter ; 
doomed forever to be no Chivalry, but a mere gold-plated 
Doggery what the French well name Canaille, ' Doggery r 
with more or less gold carrion at its disposal ? Captains 
of Industry are the true Fighters .... Fighters against 
Chaos, Necessity and the Devils and Jotuns ; and lead on 
Mankind in that great, and alone true, and universal 
warfare ; the stars in their courses fighting for them .... 
Let the Captains of Industry retire into their own hearts, 
and ask solemnly, If there is nothing but vulturous hunger, 
for fine wines, valet reputation, and gilt carriages, dis 
coverable there ? Of hearts made by the Almighty God, 
I will not believe such a thing. Deep-hidden under 
vrretchedest god-forgetting Cants, Epicurisms there is 


yet, in all hearts born into this God's-World, a spark of the 
Godlike slumbering. 

Awake, O nightmare sleepers ; awake, arise, or be forever 
fallen ! This is not playhouse poetry ; it is sober fact. 
Our England, our world cannot live as it is. It will connect 
itself with a God again, or go down, with nameless throes 
and fire-consummation to the Devils. Thou who feelest 
aught of such a Godlike stirring in thee, any faintest in 
timation of it as through heavy-laden dreams, follow it, 
I conjure thee. 

Arise, save thyself, be one of those that save thy 

THOMAS CARLYLE (1795-1881), 
* Past and Present. 5 

THICK in yon stream of light, a thousand ways, 
Upward and downward, thwarting and convolved, 
The quivering nations sport ; till, tempest wing'd, 
Fierce Winter sweeps them from the face of day ; 
Even so, luxurious men, unheeding, pass 
An idle summer life in fortune's shine, 
A season's glitter ! Thus they flutter on 
From toy to toy, from vanity to vice ; 
Till, blown away by death, Oblivion comes 
Behind, and strikes them from the book of life. 

JAMES THOMSON (1700-1748), 
* Summer.' 

The Riches of Poverty 


T T NDER the greenwood tree, 
**J Who loves to lie with me 
And tune his merry note 
Unto the sweet bird's throat, 
Come hither, come hither, come hither ! 

Here shall he see 

No enemy 
But winter and rough weather. 

Who doth ambition shun, 

And loves to live in the sun, 

Seeking the food he eats, 

And pleased with what he gets, 

Come hither, come hither, come hither ! 

Here shall he see 

No enemy 
But winter and rough weather. 

' As You Like It.' 

THE poverty of men is safe; great riches are exposed 
to danger. 

PLATO (B.C. 427-347), 
* Phaedrus.' 


O! THE great happiness, which shepheards have, 
Who so loathes not too much the poore estate, 
With minde that ill use doth before deprave, 
Ne measures all things by the costly rate 
Of riotise, and semblants outward brave ! 
No such sad cares, as wont to macerate 
And rend the greedie mindes of covetous men, 
Do ever creepe into the shepheard's den. 

Ne cares he if the fleece, which him arayes, 
Be not twice steeped in Assyrian dye ; 
Ne glistering of golde, which underlayes 
The summer beames, doe blind his gazing eye ; 
Ne picture's beautie, nor the glauncing rayes 
Of precious stones, whence no good commeth by ; 
Ne yet his cup embost with Imagery 
Of Baetus or of Alcon's vanity. 

Ne ought the whelky pearles esteemeth hee, 
Which are from Indian seas brought far away ; 
But with pure brest from carefull sorrow free, 
On the soft grasse his limbs doth oft display, 
In sweete spring time, when flowres varietie 
With sundrie colours paints the sprinckled lay : 
There, lying all at ease from guile or spight, 
With pype of fennie reedes doth him delight. 
There he, Lord of himselfe, with palme bedight. 
His looser locks doth wrap in wreath of vine : 
There his milk-dropping Goats be his delight, 
And fruitefull Pales, and the forrest greene, 
And darksome caves in pleasaunt vallies pight, 
Whereas continuall shade is to be scene, 
And where fresh springing wells, as christall neate, 
Do alwayes flow to quench his thirstie heate. 


O ! who can lead, then, a more happie life 

Than he, that with cleane minde, and heart sincere, 

No greedy riches knowes nor bloudie strife, 

No deadly fight of warlick fleete doth feare ; 

Ne runs in perill of foes cruell knife, 

That in the sacred temples he may reare 

A trophee of his glittering spoyles and treasure, 

Or may abound in riches above measure. 

Of him his God is worshipt with his sythe, 

And not with skill of craftsman polished : 

He joyes in groves, and makes himself e full blythe 

With sundrie flowers in wilde fieldes gathered ; 

Ne frankincens he from Panchaea buyth : 

Sweete quiet harbours in his harmless head, 

And perfect pleasure buildes her joyous bowre, 

Free from sad cares that rich men's hearts devowre. 

This all his care, this all his whole indevour, 
To this his minde and senses he doth bend, 
How he may flow in quiet's matchles treasour, 
Content with any food that God doth send ; 
And how his limbs, resolv'd through idle leisour, 
Unto sweete sleepe he may securely lend 
In some coole shadow from the scorching heat, 
The whiles his flock their chawed cuds do eate. 

O flocks ! O Faunes ! and O ye pleasaunt Springs 
Of Tempe ! where the countrey Nymphs are rife, 
Through whose not costly care each shepheard sings 
As merrie notes upon his rusticke Fife, 
As that Ascraean bard, whose fame now rings 
Through the wide world, and leads as joyfull life ; 
Free from all troubles and from worldly toyle, 
In which fond men doe all their dayes turmoyle. 

EDMUND SPENSER (1552-1599), 
* Virgil's Gnat.' 


HAS God cast thy lot amongst the poor of this world, 
by denying thee the plenties of this life, or by taking 
them away ? This may be preventing mercy ; for much 
mischief riches do to the sons of men. 

ROBERT SOUTH (1633-1716). 

FROM the Court to the Cottage convey me away ! 
For I'm weary of grandeur, and what they call " gay ' 
Where Pride without measure 
And Pomp without pleasure, 
Make life, in a circle of hurry, decay. 

Far remote and retired from the noise of the Town ; 
I'll exchange my brocade for a plain russet gown ! 

My friends shall be few, 

But well chosen and true; 
And sweet recreation our evening shall crown ! 

With a rural repast, a rich banquet to me, 

On a mossy green bank, near some shady old tree, 

The river's clear brink 

Shall afford me my drink ; 
And Temp'rance my friendly Physician shall be ! 

Ever calm and serene, with contentment still blest, 
Not too giddy with joy, or with sorrow deprest, 

I'll neither invoke, 

Nor repine at, Death's stroke ! 
But retire from the world, as I would to my rest. 

HENRY CAREY (d. 1743), 

* Mrs. Stuart's Retirement.' 


HOWEVER mean your life is, meet it and live it ; do not 
shun it and call it hard names. It is not so bad as you 
are. It looks poorest when you are richest. The fault 
finder will find faults even in Paradise. Love your life, 
poor as it is. You may perhaps have some pleasant, thrilling, 
glorious hours, even in a poor-house. The setting sun is 
reflected from the windows of the almshouse as brightly 
as from the rich man's abode ; the snow melts before its 
door as early in the spring. I do not see but a quiet mind 
may live as contentedly there, and have as cheering thoughts, 
as in a palace. The town's poor seem to me often to live 
the most independent lives of any. Maybe they are simply 
great enough to receive without misgiving. Most think that 
they are above being supported by the town ; but it oftener 
happens that they are not above supporting themselves by 
dishonest means, which should be more disreputable. 
Cultivate poverty like a garden herb, like sage. Do not 
trouble yourself much to get new things, whether clothes 
or friends. Turn the old ; return to them. Things do 
not change : we change. Sell your clothes and keep your 
thoughts. God will see that you do not want society. 
If I were confined to a corner of a garret all my days, like 
a spider, the world would be just as large to me while I 
had my thoughts about me. The philosopher said : " From 
an army of three divisions one can take away its general, 
and put it in disorder ; from the man the most abject and 
vulgar one cannot take away his thought." Do not seek so 
anxiously to be developed, to subject yourself to many 
influences to be played on ; it is all dissipation. Humility, 
like darkness, reveals the heavenly lights. The shadows of 
poverty and meanness gather around us, " and lo ! creation 
widens to our view." We are often reminded that if there 
were bestowed on us the wealth of Croesus, our aims must 
still be the same, and our means essentially the same. 
Moreover if you are restricted in your range by poverty, if 
you cannot buy books and newspapers, for instance, you 
are but confined to the most significant and vital experi 
ences ; you are compelled to deal with the material which 
yields the most sugar and the most starch. It is life near 
the bone where it is sweetest. You are defended from being 


a trifler. No man loses ever on a lower level by mag 
nanimity on a higher. Superfluous wealth can buy super 
fluities only. Money is not required to buy one necessary 
of the soul. 

' Walden.' 

IT is easy to see that Franciscan poverty is neither to be 
confounded with the unfeeling pride of the stoic, nor 
with the stupid horror of all joy felt by certain devotees ; 
St. Francis renounced everything only that he might 
the better possess everything. The lives of the immense 
majority of our contemporaries are ruled by the fatal 
error that the more one possesses the more one enjoys. 
Our exterior, civil liberties continually increase, but at the 
same time our inward freedom is taking flight ; how many 
are there among us who are literally possessed by what 
they possess ? 

Poverty not only permitted the brothers to mingle 
with the poor and speak to them with authority, but, 
removing from them all material anxiety, it left them fret- 
to enjoy without hindrance those hidden treasures which 
nature reserves for pure idealists. 

The ever-thickening barriers which modern life, with 
its sickly search for useless comfort, has set up between 
us and nature did not exist for these men, so full of youth 
and life, eager for wide spaces and the outer air. 

PAUL SABATIER (aoth Century), 
* Life of St. Francis.' 

/^ONSIDER the lilies how they they grow; they toil 
^-s not, they spin not ; and yet I say unto you, that Solomon 
in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 

Take no thought for your life-, what ye shall eat ; 
neither for the body, what ye shall put on. The life is 
more than meat, and the body is more than raiment. 

Consider the ravens : for they neither sow nor reap ; 
which neither have store-house nor barn ; and God feedeth 
them : how much more are ye better than the fowls ? 

Luke xii. 


IN whom is ended lust and love of living and delusion, 
who cares naught for nourishment, whose abode is 
emancipation, empty, and independent of conditions, like 
the way of birds in air, his steps are hard to trace. 

Whose senses are mastered like horses well under their 
driver's control, who is purged of pride, ended with lust 
and love of life and delusion such an one even the gods 
do envy. 

Tranquil is the thought, tranquil the word and deed 
of him who is delivered and brought to stillness through 
the perfection of wisdom. 

Be it in village or in forest, on land or on sea, where 
soever the Arahan* dwells, that is a place to delight in. 

Delightful are the woods where the crowd finds no 
delight. The Arahans, the passionless, there shall find 
delight, seeking not after lust. 

Happy indeed we live, we that call nothing our own. 
P'eeders on joy we shall be, like to the radiant gods. 

From the * Dhammapada ' 
or ' Way of Truth ' (5th Century B.C.), 
Trans, by Silacara (Bhikkhu). 

* In Buddhism, one who has attained to the Goal of 
the Path. The word is allied to "Ariya," which (originally 
a racial term ; as, indeed, it is employed in ethnology today) 
had then come to indicate nobility of character. 


T3ETWEEN Tupino and the stream that falls 

O Down from the hill elect of blessed Ubald, 
A fertile slope of lofty mountain hangs, 

From which Perugia feels the cold and heat 
Through Porta Sole, and behind it weep 
Gualdo and Nocera their grievous yoke. 

From out that slope, there where it breaketh most 
Its steepness, rose upon the world a sun 
As this one doth sometimes from out the Ganges ; 

Therefore let him who speaketh of that place, 
Say not Ascesi, for he would say little, 
But Orient, if he properly would speak. 

He was not yet far distant from his rising 
Before he had begun to make the earth 
Some comfort from his mighty virtue feel. 

For he in youth his father's wrath incurred 
For certain Dame, to whom, as unto death, 
The gate of pleasure no one doth unlock ; 

And was before his spiritual court 
Et coram patre unto her united ; 
Then day by day more fervently he loved her. 

She, reft of her first husband, scorned, obscure, 
One thousand and one hundred years and more, 
Waited without a suitor till he came 

But that too darkly I may not proceed, 
Francis and Poverty for these two lovers 
Take thou henceforward in my speech diffuse. 

Their concord and their joyous semblances, 
The love, the wonder, and the sweet regard, 
They made to be the cause of holy thoughts ; 

So much so that the venerable Bernard 

First bared his feet, and after so great peace 
Ran, and in running, thought himself too slow. 

O wealth unknown ! O veritable good ! 

Giles bares his feet and bares his feet Sylvester 
Behind the bridegroom, so doth please the bride ! . . 

On the rude rock 'twixt Tiber and the Arno 
From Christ did he receive the final seal, 

Which during two whole years his members bore. 
When he, who chose him unto so much good, 

Was pleased to draw him up to the reward 

That he had merited by being lowly. 
Unto his friars, as to the rightful heirs. 

His most dear Lady did he recommend. 

And bade that they should love her faithfully. 

DANTE ALIGHIERI (1265-1321), 

1 Paradiso XI.' 
(H. W. Longfellow's translation). 

JESUS was born a poor child. He was cradled in a 
manger. In youth, he lived in the poor household of 
Joseph, a carpenter. 

In early manhood he became more poor. It is written 
that he said, " Foxes have holes, and the birds of the air 
have nests ; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his 

Yet he sought not worldly riches, but said rather, 
" Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom 
of heaven." 

O THOU MOST POOR JESUS, grant that we may never 
seek, as our treasure, the riches of this world, which 
perish, while corrupting our hearts with pride, envy, 
jealousy and sloth ; but that we may seek, instead, the 
inward peace of the kingdom of heaven, which perishes 
not, and causes not strife, but increases its treasure with 
every new heart which shares it. 


(Author unknown.) 


I HAD gone a-begging from door to door in the village 
path, when thy golden chariot appeared in the distance 
like a gorgeous dream and I wondered who was this King 
of all kings! 

My hopes rose high and methought my evil days 
were at an end, and I stood waiting for alms to be given 
unasked and for wealth scattered on all sides in the dust. 

The chariot stopped where I stood. Thy glance fell 
on me and thou earnest down with a smile. I felt that the 
luck of my life had come at last. Then of a sudden thou 
didst hold out thy right hand and say " What hast thou 
to give to me ? " 

Ah, what a kingly jest was it to open thy palm to a 
beggar to beg ! I was confused and stood undecided, 
and then from my wallet I slowly took out the least little 
grain of corn and gave it to thee. 

But how great my surprise when at the day's end I 
emptied my bag on the floor to find a least little grain of 
gold among the poor heap. I bitterly wept and wished 
that I had had the heart to give thee my all. 

1 Gitanjali.' 

SUME are that hase reches and lufes thaym, and thase 
are the haldande and the covaytourse of this worlde. 
Othere are that hase thayme noghte bot thay luffe thayme, 
and thay walde hafe thayme gladly, and thase are the 
wrechide beggars of the worlde, and the false folke in reli- 
gyone, and thase are as riche and richere thane the other 
(in will). And of thame Ihesu saise in the gospelle, that 
" lyghtere it ware a camelle to passe thurghe a nedill 
eghe, than the riche to come in to the blysse of heven." 

Sume are that hase reches bot thay lufe thaym noghte, 
noghte-for-thy thay will wele hafe thame; and thase are the 
gud mene of the worlde that dispendis wele that at thay 
hase. But fone are of thase ! 

Yit it are other that hase noghte reches, ne lufes 
noghte thaym, ne will noght hafe thame : and thase are 


the gude folke that are in religione, and thase are sothe- 
fastely pure, and thairs es the loye of hevene, ffor that es 
the benysone of the pure. 

Mirror of St. Edmund (1170-1240), 

Ms. Thornton. 
(Trans, probably by Richard Rolle of Hampole.) 

WHAT then, in the last resort, is the source of this 
opposition ; the true reason of your uneasiness, your 
unrest ? The reason lies, not in any real incompatibility 
between the interests of the temporal and the eternal 
orders ; which are but two aspects of one Fact, two ex 
pressions of one Love. It lies solely in yourself ; in your 
attitude towards the world of things. You are enslaved 
by the verb " to have " : all your reactions to life consist 
in corporate or individual demands, appetites, wants .... 

The very mainspring of your activity is a demand 
either for a continued possession of that which you have, 
or for something which as yet you have not : wealth, honour, 
success, social position, love, friendship, comfort, amuse 
ment You hold tight against all comers your own 

share of the spoils. You are rather inclined to shirk boring 
responsibilities and unattractive, unremunerative toil ; 
are greedy of pleasure and excitement, devoted to the art 
of having a good time. If you possess a social sense, you 
demand these things not only for yourself but for your 
tribe the domestic or racial group to which you belong. 
These dispositions, so ordinary that they almost pass 
unnoticed, were named by our blunt forefathers the 
Seven Deadly Sins of Pride, Anger, Envy, Avarice, Sloth, 
Gluttony and Lust. Perhaps you would rather call them 
as indeed they are the seven common forms of egotism. . . 

It is therefore by the withdrawal of your will from its 
feverish attachment to things, till " they are under thee 
and thou not under them," that you will gradually resolve 
the opposition between the recollective and the active sides 
of your personality. By diligent self-discipline, that 
mental attitude which the mystics sometimes call poverty 

and sometimes perfect freedom for these are two aspects 
of one thing will become possible to you. Ascending 
the mountain of self-knowledge and throwing aside your 
superfluous luggage as you go, you shall at last arrive at 
the point which they call the summit of the spirit ; where 
the various forces of your character brute energy, keen 
intellect, desirous heart long dissipated amongst a thou 
sand little wants and preferences, are gathered into one, 
and become a strong and disciplined instrument wherewith 
your true self can force a path deeper and deeper into the 
heart of reality. 

EVELYN UNDERBILL (2oth Century), 
* Practical Mysticism.' 

A MAN who has accustomed himself to look at all his 
circumstances as very mutable, to carry his possessions, 
his relations to persons, and even his opinions, in his hand, 
and in all these to pierce to the principal and moral law, 
and everywhere to find that has put himself out of the 
reach of all scepticism; and it seems as if whatever is 
most affecting and sublime in our intercourse, in our 
happiness, and in our losses, tended steadily to uplift us 
to a life so extraordinary, and, one might say, superhuman. 

4 Essays.' 

BECAUSE of your new sensitiveness, anthems will be 
heard of you from every gutter, poems of intolerable 
loveliness will bud for you on every weed. Best and 
greatest, your fellow-men will shine for you with new 
significance and light. Humility and awe will be evoked 
in you by the beautiful and patient figures of the poor, 
their long dumb heroisms, their willing acceptance of the 
burden of life. 

EVELYN UNDERBILL (zoth Century), 
* Practical Mysticism.' 


THE mystic or theist is never scared by any startling 
materialism. He knows the laws of gravitation and of 
repulsion are deaf to French talkers, be they never so 
witty. If theology shows that opinions are fast changing, 
it is not so with the convictions of men with regard to 
conduct. These remain. The most daring heroism, the 
most accomplished culture, or rapt holiness never exhausted 
the claim of these lowly duties never penetrated to their 
origin, or was able to look behind their source. We cannot 
disenchant, we cannot impoverish ourselves, by obedience ; 
but by humility we rise, by obedience we command, by 
poverty we are rich, by dying we live. 

' Essays.' 

OVER and above the mystery of self-surrender, there 
are in the cult of poverty other religious mysteries. 
There is the mystery of veracity : " Naked came I into the 
world,' 7 etc., whoever first said that, possessed this mystery. 
My own bare entity must fight the battle shams cannot 
save me. There is also the mystery of democracy, or sent 
iment of the equality before God of all his creatures. This 
sentiment (which seems in general to have been more 
widespread in Mohammedan than in Christian lands) 
tends to nullify man's usual acquisitiveness. Those who 
have it spurn dignities and honours, privileges and advan 
tages, preferring to grovel on the common level before the 
face of God. It is not exactly the sentiment of humility, 
though it comes so close to it in practice. It is humanity, 
rather, refusing to enjoy anything that others do not share. 
A profound moralist, writing of Christ's saying, " Sell all 
thou hast and follow me," proceeds as follows : " Christ 
may have meant : If you love mankind absolutely you will 
as a result not care for any possessions whatever, and this 
seems a very likely proposition. But it is one thing to 
believe that a proposition is probably true ; it is another 
thing to see it as a fact. It would be obvious. You would 


sell your goods, and they would be no loss to you. These 
truths, while literal to Christ, and to any mind that has 
Christ's love for mankind, become parables to lesser natures 

Thus the whole question of the abandonment of 
luxury is no question at all, but a mere incident to another 
question, namely, the degree to which we abandon our 
selves to the remorseless logic of our love for others." 
WILLIAM JAMES (1842-1910.), 

* Varieties of Religious Experience.' 

BECAUSE the storm has stript us bare 
Of all things but the thing we are, 
Because our faith requires us whole, 
And we are seen to the very soul, 
Rejoice ! From now all meaner fears are fled 

Because we have no prize to win 

Auguster than the truth within, 
And by consuming of the dross 

Magnificently lose our loss, 
Rejoice ! We have not vainly borne and bled. 

Because we chose beyond recall 

And for dear honour hazard all, 
And summoned to the last attack 

Refuse to falter or look back, 
Rejoice ! We die, the Cause is never dead. 

LAURENCE BINYON (zoth Century). 


man has to learn the points of compass again 
J -/ as often as he awakes, whether from sleep or any 
abstraction. Not till we are lost in other words, not till 
we have lost the world do we begin to find ourselves, 
and realise where we are, and the infinite extent of our 

1 Walden.' 

THEREFORE a man should be of good courage concern 
ing his soul, if in this life he has scorned material 
delights and adornments as foreign to her and to the 
perfecting of his chosen life. He will have applied himself 
earnestly to Understanding, and having adorned his soul, not 
with any alien ornament, but with her own peculiar jewels, 
Temperance, Justice, Courage, Nobility and Truth, he 
thus awaits his journey to Hades, in readiness to start 
whenever the call may come. 

PLATO (B.C. 427-347), 
' Ph;edo.' 

MANY men rejoice and rejoice 
over a supply of good food, 
over being in a high and exalted position. 
I am calm, I do not feel the slightest emotion, 
like a new-born child which cannot yet smile at its 


without attachment to anything, 
returning always to the Inner Life. 

Many men have superfluous possessions. 
I have nothing that I value ; 

I desire that my heart be completely subdued, 

emptied to emptiness. 

Men of wealth are in the daylight of prosperity, 
I am in the dark. 


Men of wealth are endowed with penetration, 

I appear confused and ignorant. 

Suddenly I am, as it were, on a vast sea, 

floating on the sea of Inner Life which is boundless. 

Many men are full of ability. 
I appear to be stupid and rustic. 

Thus am I different from other men. 

But I revere the Mother, Sustainer of all beings. 

LAO Tzu (B.C. 604), 
1 Tao Teh King.' 
(Trans, by Dr. Isabella Mears.) 

EMPTY this ship, O Bhikkhu ; emptied, lightly will it 
go with thee. From craving and hatred cut off, 
thence shalt thou go to Nibbana. 

He whose house is emptied, the Bhikkhu of tran- 
quillised mind, joy supernal is his in the perfect vision of 
the Teaching. 

Just as the jasmine sheds its withered blossoms, so 
O Bhikkhus, do you shed craving and hatred. 

Subdued in deed, subdued in word, tranquil, stilled, 
emptied of all appetite for the world " tranquillised," is 
such a Bhikkhu called. 

Even a young Bhikkhu who devotes himself to the 
Teaching of the Awakened One, he lights up this world 
like the moon emerging from behind a cloud. 

From the " Dhammapada,' 
or ' Way of Truth ' (5th Century B.C.). 

(Trans, by Silacara (Bhikkhu).) 


THE world salle them over-corn thorow covaytyng of 
Cristes luf, and thynkynge of his swete name, and 
desire til heven ; for als son as thou feles savowr in Ihesu, 
the wille thynke alle the werlde noght hot vanite and noye 
for mennys saules. 

Thou wil noght covayte than to be ryche, to have 
many mantils and faire, many kirtils, many dreurise, hot 
alle thou wil set at noght, and despise alle, and take na 
mare than the nedes. 

The wille thynke twa mantils or ane Inogh, that 
nowe has fyfe or sex ; for-thi gyf som til Crist that gas 
naked and pore, and hald noght til the alle : 

The devyl is overcommen when thou standis stabilly 
agayns alle his fandynges, in sothfaste charite and mekenes. 

Ms. Rawl. 

HP HE sterre led the thre kynges in to Bethleem : there 
A thei fonde Crist in swethil-cloutes simpli, as a poure 
childe. Tharby understonde that whiles thou art in pryde 
and vanite, thou fyndest hym not. 

How may thou for schame, that art bot servant, with 
mony clothes and riche folowe thi spouse and thi lord, 
that went in on kirtil : and thou trailest as myche bihynde 
the, as al that he had on ? 

Ms. Rawl. 

THE nakedness of the indigent world might be clothed 
from the trimmings of the vain. 

OLIVER GOLDSMITH (1728-1774), 

' The Vicar of Wakefield.' 


BUT nowe may thou say to me : " how sulde I that es 
in Relygyone, and noghte hase to gyffe at etc ne at 
drynke, ne clathes to the nakede, ne herbery to the her- 
berles, ffor I am at other mens will and noghte at mine 
awene ? ffor-thi ware it better that I ware seculere, that 
I myghte do thire werkes of mercy." A, dere frende, be 
noghte begylede. Better it es to hafe pete and compassione 
in thi herte of hym that hase mysese and wrechednes, thane 
thou hade all this worlde to gyffe for charyte : ffor it es 
bettir wyth compassione to gyffe thi-selfe, als thou erte, 
than it es to gyffe that that thou hase. Therefore, dere 
frende, gyffe thi-selfe, and than gyffes thou mare than es 
in all this worlde 

THE MIRROR OF ST. EDMUND (1170-1240), 

Ms. Thornton. 
(Trans, probably by Richard Rolle of Hampole.) 

AND he looked up, and saw the rich men casting their 
gifts into the treasury. 

And he saw also a certain poor widow casting in thither 
two mites. 

And he said, Of a truth I say unto you, that this poor 
widow hath cast in more than they all : 

For all these have of their abundance cast in unto 
the offerings of God : but she of her penury hath cast in 
all the living that she had. 

Luke xxi. 

ART thou poor, yet hast thou golden slumbers ? 
O sweet content ! 
Art thou rich, yet is thy mind perplexed ? 

O punishment ! 

Dost thou laugh to see how fools are vexed 
To add to golden numbers, golden numbers ? 

O sweet content ! O sweet, O sweet content ! 
Work apace, apace, apace, apace ; 
Honest labour bears a lovely face ; 
Then hey nonny, nonny hey nonny, nonny ! 


Canst drink the waters of the crisped spring ? 

O sweet content ! 
Swimm'st thou in wealth, yet sink'st in thine own tears ? 

O punishment ! 

Then he that patiently want's burden bears, 
No burden bears, but is a king, a king ! 

O sweet content ! O sweet, O sweet content ! 
Work apace, apace, apace, apace ; 
Honest labour bears a lovely face ; 
Then hey nonny, nonny hey nonny, nonny ! 

THOMAS DEKKER (b. 1570), 
1 The Happy Heart/ 

N OW as they were going along, and talking, they espied 
a boy feeding his father's sheep. The boy was in very 
mean clothes, but of a fresh and well-favoured countenance ; 
and as he sat by himself he sung. " Hark," said Mr. Great- 
heart " to what the shepherd's boy saith " : so they hearkened, 
and he said : 

" He that is down, needs fear no fall ; 

He that is low, no pride : 
He that is humble ever shall 

Have God to be his guide. 
I am content with what I have, 

Little be it or much : 
And, Lord, contentment still I crave, 

Because thou savest such. 
Fulness to such a burden is 

That go on pilgrimage : 
Here little, and hereafter bliss, 

Is best from age to age ! " 

Then said the guide, " Do you hear him ? I will 
dare to say, this boy lives a merrier life, and wears more 
of the herb called hear? s-ease in his bosom, than he that 
is clad in silk and velvet." 

JOHN BUNYAN (1628-1688), 
* Pilgrim's Progress.' 

WELL then ; I now do plainly see, 
This busy world and I shall ne'er agree ; 
The very honey of all earthly joy 

Does of all meats the soonest cloy. 
And they, methinks, deserve my pity, 

Who for it can endure the stings, 
The crowd, the buzz, and murmurings 
Of this great hive, the city. 

Ah ! yet, ere I descend to th' grave, 

May I a small house and large garden have ! 
And a few friends, and many books, both true, 

Both wise, and both delightful too ! 
And since love ne'er will from me flee, 

A mistress moderately fair, 
And good as guardian-angels are, 

Only belov'd, and loving me ! 

ABRAHAM COWLEY (1618-1667), 

BECAUSE I was content with these poor fields, 
Low open meads, slender and sluggish streams, 
And found a home in haunts which others scorned, 
The partial wood-gods overpaid my love, 

And granted me the freedom of their state. . . . 
And through my rock-like, solitary wont 

Shot million rays of thought and tenderness .... 

For there's no rood has not a star above it, 

The cordial quality of pear or plum 
Ascends as gladly in a single tree 

As in broad orchards resonant with bees 

And, chiefest prize, I found true liberty 
In the glad home plain-dealing Nature gave. 
The polite found me impolite ; the great 

Would mortify me, but in vain ; for still 
I am a willow of the wilderness, 

Loving the wind that bent me. All my hurts 
My garden spade can heal .... 


For thus the wood-gods murmured in my ear : 
"" Dost love our manners, canst thou silent lie ? 
Canst thou, thy pride forgot, like Nature pass 
Into the winter night's extinguished mood ? 

Canst thou shine now, then darkle, 
And being latent feel thyself no less ? 

As, when the all-worshipped moon attracts the eye, 
The river, hill, stems, foliage are obscure, 

Yet envies none, none are enviable." 

* Musket aquid.' 

IS there for honest Poverty 
That hings his head, an* a' that ; 
The coward slave we pass him by, 

We dare be poor for a' that ! 
For a' that, an' a' that, 

Our toils obscure an* a* that, 
The rank is but the guinea's stamp, 
The Man's the gowd for a' that. 

What though on hamely fare we dine, 

Wear hoddin grey, an' a' that ; 
Gie fools their silks, and knaves their wine, 

A Man's a Man for a' that : 
For a' that, an' a' that, 

Their tinsel show, an' a' that ; 
The honest man, tho' e'er sae poor, 

Is king o' men for a* that. 

Ye see yon birkie ca'd " a lord," 

Wha struts, an' stares, an' a' that ; 
Tho' hundreds worship at his word, 

He's but a coof for a' that : 
For a' that, an' a' that, 

His ribband, star, an' a' that ; 
The man o' independent mind, 

He looks an' laughs at a' that. 


A prince can mak a belted knight, 

A marquis, duke, an' a' that ; 
But an honest man's aboon his might, 

Gude faith, he mauna fa' that ! 
For a' that, an' a' that, 

Their dignities, an' a' that ; 
The pith o j sense, an' pride o' worth, 

Are higher rank than a' that. 

Then let us pray that come it may 

(As come it will for a' that), 
That Sense and Worth o'er a' the earth, 

Shall bear the gree, an' a' that. 
For a' that, an' a' that, 

Its comin' yet for a' that, 
That Man to Man, the world o'er, 

Shall brothers be for a' that. 

ROBERT BURNS (1759-1796), 

1 A Man's a Man for a' that/ 

THE greater the man, the less he needs. 

VON MOLTKE (1800-1891). 

NOT to desire to be ministered unto, but rather to 
minister ; never to make it my object to live in ease, 
plenty, luxury, and independence. 

MATTHEW ARNOLD (1822-1888). 

From his " Notebook." 

'OR thy body require few comforts, that thy powers 
may unveil to thee their wonder, and suffice thee ! 

A. M. BUCKTON (2oth Century), 

* Words out of the Silence/ 


T3 ETTER is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled 
ox and hatred therewith. 

Proverbs xv. 

MAKE your manner of eating neither luxurious nor 
gloomy, but lively and frugal, that the soul may not 
be perturbed through being deceived by the pleasures 
of the body, and that it may despise them. 


(Trans, by George Long). 

WE must remember that our portion of temporal 
things is but food and raiment. God hath not 
promised us coaches and horses, rich houses and jewels, 
Syrian silks and Persian carpets. 

JEREMY TAYLOR (1613-1667). 

THE needs of different people vary, th rich are not to 
be required to use the same food as the poor, but may 
have such food as their infirmity has made necessary for 
them, while at the same time they ought to lament that 
they require this indulgence. 



I HATE the prostitution of the name of friendship to 
signify modish and worldly alliances. I much prefer 
the company of ploughboys and tin-peddlers to the silken 
and perfumed amity which celebrates its days of encounter 
by a frivolous display, by rides in a curricle, and dinners 
at the best taverns. 

The end of friendship is a commerce the most strict 
and homely that can be joined ; more strict than any of 
which we have experience. It is for aid and comfort 
through all the relations and passages of life and death. 
It is fit for serene days, and graceful gifts, and country 
rambles, but also for rough roads and hard fare, ship 
wreck, poverty and persecution. 

' Friendship.' 

WHAT though, like commoners of air, 
We wander out, we know not where, 

But either house or hal'. 
Yet nature's charms, the hills and woods, 
The sweeping vales, and foaming floods, 

Are free alike to all. 
In days when daisies deck the ground, 
And blackbirds whistle clear, 
With honest joy our hearts will bound, 
To see the coming year : . 
On braes when we please, then, 
We'll sit and sowth a tune : 
Syne rhyme till't, we'll time tilPt 
And sing't when we hae done. 


It's no in titles nor in rank ; 

It's no in wealth like Lon'on bank, 

To purchase peace and rest ; 
It's no in making muckle mair ; 
It's no in books, it's no in lear, 

To make us truly blest : 
If happiness hae not her seat 
And centre in the breast, 
We may be wise, or rich, or great, 
But never can be blest : 
Nae treasures, nor pleasures, 
Could make us happy lang ; 
The heart ay's the part ay 
That makes us right or wrang. 

Think ye, that sic as you and I, 

Wha drudge and drive thro* wet an' dry, 

Wi' never ceasing toil ; 
Think ye, are we less blest than they, 
Wha scarcely tent us in their way, 

As hardly worth their while ? 
Alas ! how aft in haughty mood, 
God's creatures they oppress ! 
Or else, neglecting a' that's guid, 
They riot in excess ! 
Baith careless, and fearless, 
Of either heav'n or hell ! 
Esteeming, and deeming 
It a' an idle tale ! 


Then let us cheerfu' acquiesce ; 
Nor make our scanty pleasures less, 

By pining at our state ; 
And, even should misfortunes come, % 
I, here wha sit, hae met wi' some, 

An's thankfu' for them yet. 
They gi'e the wit o' age to youth ; 
They let us ken oursel' ; 
They mak us see the naked truth, 
The real guid and ill. 
Tho' losses, and crosses, 
Be lessons right severe, 
There's wit there, ye'll get there, 
Ye'll find nae other where. 

ROBERT BURNS (1759-1796), 
' To Davie.' 

OH ! if we draw a circle premature, 
Heedless of far gain, 
Greedy for quick returns of profit, sure 

Bad is our bargain ! 
Was it not great ? Did not he throw on God, 

(He loves the burthen) 
God's task to make the heavenly period 

Perfect the earthen ? 
Did not he magnify the mind, show clear 

Just what it all meant ? 
He would not discount life, as fools do here, 

Paid by instalment. 
He ventured neck or nothing heaven's success 

Found, or earth's failure : 
" Wilt thou trust death or not ? " He answered " Yes 

Hence with life's pale lure ! " 
That low man seeks a little thing to do, 

Sees it and does it : 


This high man, with a great thing to pursue, 

Dies ere he knows it. 
That low man goes on adding one to one, 

His hundred's soon hit : 
This high man, aiming at a million, 

Misses an unit. 
That, has the world here should he need the next, 

Let the world mind him ! 
This, throws himself on God, and unperplexed 

Seeking shall find him. 

ROBERT BROWNING (1812-1889), 

1 A Grammarian's Fun eral.' 


THANKS are due to many Authors and Publishers who have 
generously granted permission to print in this book, the quotations 
required from copyright, and writings of the present day. In 
addition to acknowledging much kind help from many other 
sources, thanks are specially due : 

To Sir James Barrie, for quotations from ' Courage ' (and to Messrs. 
Hodder and Stoughton) ; 

To Messrs. Bell and Sons, for translations from ' Epictetus ' (from 
the Bohn Library) ; 

To Mr. Laurence Binyon, for his poem ; 

To Miss A. M. Buckton, for quotations from ' Words out of the 
Silence ' (and to Mr. John Watkins) ; 

To Father Cuthbert, O.S.F.C., for a quotation from ' The Lady 
Poverty ' (and to Messrs. Burns, Gates and Washbourne) ; 

To Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton, for a short extract from ' The 
Story of Christ,' by Giovanni Papini ; 

To the Very Rev. W. R. Inge, D.D., for a quotation from ' Out 
spoken Essays ' (and to Messrs. Longmans, Green and Co.) ; 

To Dr. L. P. Jacks, for an extract from The Hibbert Journal ; 
To Dr. T. N. Kelynack, for an extract from ' The Child ' ; 

To Messrs. Longmans, Green and Co., for quotations from ' Varieties 
of Religious Experience,' by the late Professor William James ; 

To Messrs. Macmillan and Co., for quotations from ' The Inward 
Light,' by Fielding Hall ; translation from Plato's ' Republic ' 
(Davies and Vaughan) ; and quotations from ' Nationalism,' 
and ' Gitanjali,' by Dr. Rabindranath Tagore. 

To Mr. J. F. McKechnie (Silacara, Bhikkhu), for translations from 
the Dhammapada (and to the Buddhist Society) ; 

To Dr. Isabella Mears, for translations from the ' Tao Teh King ' 
of Lao Tzu (and to the Theosophical Publishing House) ; 

To Sir John Murray for quotations from Matthew Arnold's ' Note 
book,' and from Poems by Robert Browning ; 

To M. Sabatier for a quotation from ' The Life of St. Francis ' (and 
to Charles Scribner's Sons, New York) ; 

To the Rev. H. R. L. Sheppard for quotations from his sermons ; 

To Miss Evelyn Underbill for extracts from ' Practical Mysticism ' 
and ' Introduction to Mysticism ' (and to Messrs. Methuen, 
and to Messrs. J. M. Dent and Sons) ; 

And to Miss A. M. Buckton, Mr. J. Edward Francis and Mrs. Marson 
for some quotations and helpful suggestions. 




Arnold, Matthew 36, 
Augustine, Saint 
Barrie, Sir James . . 
Binyon, Laurence . . 
Browne, Sir Thomas 
Browning, Robert . . 
Buckton, A. M. 
Bunyan, John 29, 

Burns, Robert 
Carey, Henry 
Carlyle, Thomas 
Coolidge, President . . 
Cowley, Abraham . . 
Cuthbert, Father . . 
Dante, Alighieri 
Dekker, Thomas 
Dhammapada 23, 31, 35, 
Edmund, Saint 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 

12, 64, 65, 

Epictetus . . ii, 32, 
Goldsmith, Oliver . . 
Hall, H. Fielding . . 
Hanmer, Lord 
Hawkins, Rev. E. J. 
Herbert, George 37, 38, 
Inge, The Very Rev. W. 
James, William 8, 


. . 45 Lao Tzu . . 13, 16, 35, 67 

40, 74 Luke, Saint .. 33, 58, 70 

.. 75 Mark, Saint 33 

.. 34 Milton, John.. 25, 30, 38 

. . 39 Moltke, Von . . . . 74 

. . 66 Papini, Giovanni . . . . 23 

.. 9 Plato 19, 53, 67 

. . 78 Prayer . . . . . . 61 

34, 74 Proverbs 75 

48, 71 Rolle, Richard of Hampole 69, 

73, 76 70 
. . 56 Romans . . . . . . 19 

12, 48 Ruskin, John . . 17, 38 

. . 14 Sabatier, Paul . . . . 58 

. . 72 Shakespeare, William 29, 30, 53 

. . 25 Shelley, Percy Bysshe . . 22 

. . 60 Sheppard, Rev. H. R. L. 20 

. . 70 South, Robert . . . . 56 

59, 68 Spenser, Edmund . . 31, 54 

62, 70 Stobart, Mrs. M. A. . . 20 

Tagore, Rabindranath 14, 32, 62 

72, 76 Taylor, Jeremy . . . . 75 

36, 75 Thomson, James . . . . 49 

42, 69 Thoreau, Henry David 

45 15. 40, 57. 67 
. . 46 Timothy . . . . 21 
. . 22 Underbill, Evelyn 23, 63, 64 
39, 47 Walton, Izaak . . . . 9 

R. 17 Whitman, Walt .. .. 6 

10, 65 Wordsworth, William 7, 46 



The Athenseura Press, 11 & 13 Bream's BuiMin;**, 


In praise of poverty.